SECTION ONE – FLIGHT PROCEDURES
Weight and Balance
Auto or Winch Towing
Take-off – Spins – Aerobatics – Dive Brakes – Slipping
Landing Procedure – Normal and Emergency
Cold Weather Operation
Flight Envelope Graph (Fig III)
Performance curves (Fig IV)
Final Assembly Hardware List
General Maintenance Instructions
Fabric covering, Finish
Lubrication Chart – Fig. I
Lubrication Chart – Fig. II
Lubrication Chart – Fig. III
Wheel and Brake
Annual or 100 Hour Inspection
Annual or 100 Hour Inspection Record
Sailplane Tie Down
MODEL SGS 1-34
The SGS 1-34 is a single place, high performance, all-metal sailplane of monocoque construction, built by Schweizer Aircraft Corp., Elmira, N.Y.
It was designed and built to meet the need and demand for a US Standard Class Sailplane. Its many safety features plus the excellent flying and handling characteristics serve to make it an ideal sailplane for the average soaring pilot; as well as one with competition in mind.
Pilot fatigue, after long duration flights, has been virtually eliminated because of the semi-reclining adjustable seat, adjustable rudder pedals and adjustable headrest.
The rate of roll and controllability, while thermalling, is very good. The visibility out of the cockpit in all directions is excellent. The cockpit is roomy, with all the controls and instruments within easy reach. These features add up to more pilot comfort and better proficiency.
MODEL SGS 1-34R
The SGS 1-34R flight and handling characteristics, form lift-off to touch-down, are identical with those of the 1-34.
The 1-34R incorporates a manually operated retractable main gear with doors. The retractable gear offers three advantages over the conventional gear. One, obviously that of resulting in a more aerodynamically clean aircraft. Second, the weight of the retraction mechanism is beneficial from a penetration standpoint. Furthermore, additional ground clearance is provided by the extended gear for those operation from uneven fields. The overall dimensions remain the same except for the ground height, which is slightly increased on the 1-34R. In this connection, the gear for the 1-34 has one inch up and down ground adjustment through the use of alternate axle holes in the gear plates and torque arm.
Length………………..25 ft. 5 in.
Span (15 meters)…..….49 ft 2 in.
Height……….…………7 ft. 6 in.
Wing Area………….…151 sq. ft.
Empty Weight….570 lbs. 595 lbs.
Useful Load……270 lbs. 245 lbs.
Max Gross Weight…840 lbs 840 lbs.
1-34 @ 800# GW
1-34 @ 840# GW
1-34R @ 800# GW
1-34R @ 840# GW
33 at 55 mph
33 at 55 mph
34 at 55.5 mph
34 at 55.5 mph
2.4 fps @ 49 mph
2.4 fps @ 49 mph
2.2 fps @ 46 mph
2.2 fps @ 46 mph
Placard (red line) Speed dive brakes closed
Placard (red line) Speed dive brakes open
36 - 38 mph
36 - 38 mph
36 - 38 mph
36 - 38 mph
Opening the Canopy:
Access to the cockpit is gained normally from the left hand side of the ship. The small window panel in the lower section of the canopy is pushed slightly inward, then aft. Reach across the cockpit to the ring on the latch handle, rotate the latch by pulling the handle ring inboard and aft. The canopy is unlatched when the handle is at right angles to the longeron. To latch the canopy after tie-down, reverse the above procedure.
The single bent control stick is conventional for aileron and elevator control.
Rudder pedals are conventional with a five position adjustment. Ease of adjustment is provided for by a levered lock-pin arrangement and a spring assisted pedal retraction.
Rudder Pedal Adjustment Lever:
Located between the bottom of the rudder pedals. To adjust depress lever with either heel and relax pressure on rudder pedals. The spring will retract the pedals to the full aft position. Push pedals forward to desired position and allow lever to lock in place by removing heel.
Trim Control (longitudinal):
The cockpit control is a lever with a knurled lock-knob located on the right hand side of the cockpit. The lock-knob must be turned counter-clockwise to unlock and clockwise to lock.
On the fist few aircraft, the cockpit control is a T-handle located under the lower left side of the instrument panel. To unlock, turn T-handle counterclock-wise. Pull to the desired trim position and lock by turning the handle firmly clockwise.
The trim systems of the bungee type which applies tension to the elevator cable to reduce the control stick back-pressure required while flying at slower airspeeds. Forward position for nose-down, trim and aft positions for increasing amounts of nose-up trim, for either type of control.
Tow Release Control:
The release control is a knob located below center of the instrument panel. Pull the knob fully aft to actuate the tow hook release.
Dive Brake Control:
The dive brakes are actuated by a lever located at the forward left hand side of the cockpit. Lever is pulled slightly inboard to unlock and aft to the desired degree of dive brake application. To close and lock dive brakes, push the lever forward until it snaps into the locked position. Forces required to open and close the dive brakes are light at low speeds, but will require more force to close as speed is increased.
Main Wheel Brake:
The main wheel brake is hydraulically actuated disc type and is applied by unlocking the dive brake lever and pulling to the full aft position. The wheel brake is actuated during the final few inches of the dive brake control lever travel. Extra pull force is needed to achieve wheel-braking action.
An airspeed indicator, sensitive altimeter and magnetic compass are required. Additional instruments, up to a full panel, are optional at the owner’s discretion.
Static Line Drain:
Provision for draining of any accumulation of water from the airspeed static line is made by a spring-loaded valve located at the lower left hand side of center console. To open the drain valve, push forward on the handle pins and turn counter-clockwise approximately ¼ turn. To close valve, turn handle pins. ¼ turn clockwise and release.
Factory flight tests have shown that with this valve open in flight , airspeed readings are reduced slightly. Flight with this valve inadvertently in the open position is therefore not particularly hazardous, and, in an emergency, may be used as an alternate source of static pressure.
Located on right side center bottom canopy frame. Push down and forward to secure canopy. Reverse to unlatch - the handle is at right angle to the longeron in the unlatched position.
Located at top left side or right side of console. Adjust valve as desired.
Clear-vision Window Panel:
Located at left or right bottom side of canopy aft of center. To open, pull small knob inward and slide panel aft to ventilate and remove condensation form internal canopy surfaces.
Headrest Adjustment Lever
Located at center of aft hatch forward bulkhead. To adjust, pull spring-loaded lever outboard and set headrest to desired position. Release lever to lock in place. Six positions are provided to complement the various seat-back positions.
Seat-back Adjustment Levers:
Located at top outboard sides of seat back. Depress both spring-loaded levers inboard and set seat-back to desired position in the adjustment racks. Release levers to lock into position.
Retractable Gear Control, 1-34R:
The gear retraction / extension control has slide-tube and cable arrangement with a knob handle, together with a squeeze-type finger lever latch, on the right side of the cockpit. For “Gear Down”, the control knob is in the full forward position; for “Gear Up”, the control is pulled to its full aft position. At both “Gear Up” and “Gear Down” positions, the control is locked by a pin (on the underside of the latch lever) engaging a hole in the inner slide tube. A “Gear Down” safety pin is provided (attached to a bead chain) for insertion through the slide tubes for additional protection against inadvertent gear retraction during ground-handling or tie down periods.
CHECK ALL POINTS AS LISTED
Fuselage and Cockpit:
1. Flight controls for free and normal movement.
2. Rudder pedal adjustment.
3. Seat and headrest adjustments.
4. Release hook and linkage.
5. Instruments, lines, pitot-static openings, static line drain.
6. Canopy - hinges and latch, head clearance.
7. Safety belt and shoulder harness.
8. Wing pins - main spar, and aft carry - thru
9. Aileron control attachment, fuselage to wing.
10. Tire condition and inflation (31 psi).
11. Wheel brake operation.
12. Nose Skid attachment and condition.
13. General condition exterior surfaces.
14. Retractable gear safety pin removed - 1-34 only.
1. Aileron hinge and pushrod connection.
2. Dive brake and mechanism.
3. General surface condition.
1. Stabilizer attach, forward and aft.
2. Elevator - hinges, pushrod attach.
3. Rudder - hinges and fabric.
4. Remove inspection plate - rudder and elevator control connections.
5. Tail wheel.
6. General condition surfaces and aft fuselage.
WEIGHT AND BALANCE, SGS 1-34
The weight and balance furnished with each sailplane, should be the concern of each pilot, to familiarize himself the various weights, and weight distribution limits shown. The “placard limits” plate attached to the instrument panel shows only the basic weight limitations as to maximum pilot weight to reach either (1) maximum gross weight, or forward CG limit, whichever is less; and (2), the minimum pilot weight to maintain the aft CG limit. However, because of variables in loading conditions, pilot - weight limits will also vary. For instance, the maximum pilot weight (for forward CG limit) with the seat back in the fully forward position, will sometimes calculate to be less than the weight necessary to obtain the maximum gross weight. See Weight and Balance Report for the aircraft. It should be understood that the heavier pilot will, in most cases, be tall enough to require that the seat - back be adjusted to a position other than the fully forward position. In such case, it is quite probable that the maximum gross weight figure is applicable, as each succeeding position (aft) of the seat back adjustment will allow a somewhat greater pilot weight and still remain within the forward limit. In any case, flight at, or near, the forward CG limit condition is not as critical to controllability as is flight at the aft CG limit condition.
CAUTION: Upon entering the cockpit, the nose section should e pushed downward so that the nose skid rests on the ground. Should the pilot’s own weight fail to keep the nose skid in contact with the ground, the CG condition must be rechecked, to assure that the aft CG limit is not exceeded, before flight is attempted. This indication of the CG applies to the fixed gear model only.
WEIGHT AND BALANCE, 1-34R
The Datum, MAC and CG limits are identical with those for the SGS 1-34.
The 1-34R maximum Gross Weight is 840 lbs. This gross weight was also approved for the model SGS 1-34 and was mad retroactive to include ships No. 1 and up.
The main wheel on the 1-34R, as stated previously, extends farther below the fuselage that on the 1-34. The axle position is also moved forward approximately eleven inches. This has no effect on the weight and balance outcome - only the figures use in some computations.
Use normal aero tow procedures. The actual take-off should not be attempted until an IAS of 40 mph is reached. Due to the low angle of attack, a slower attempt of take-off will result in a series of tail bumps which will be severe if the terrain or runway is not smooth. The recommended aero tow speed is 55 - 60 mph. Towing slower than an IAS of 50 mph is not recommended.
AUTO OR WINCH TOWING
Both the SGS 1-34 and SGS 1-34R have been flight - tested and approved for auto-winch towing at maximum gross weight. However, with the release hook so far forward of the CG, this manner of launch is something less than ideal. Therefore, not recommended for any pilot without proper instruction or equivalent experience.
Normal auto or winch tow procedures are used, however, as the tow hook is so far forward, the sailplane has a porpoising tendency when too much up elevator is used for the climb. Should this occur, reduce back pressure on the stick until the porpoising stops. The maximum tow speed of 66 mph must be observed.
The take-off characteristics for the 1-34R a different form the 1-34 because of the more forward location of the main landing gear. For this reason, a forward pressure on the stick is required to raise the tail off the ground to attain a level flying attitude for take-off.
Spin entries, rotation and recoveries are all normal throughout the CG range. The following characteristics occur as the CG is moved rearward.
1.Entries will be more difficult.
2.Rotation will be slower and flatter.
3.Control movements for recoveries more pronounced.
4.Slower recovery, but will not exceed 3/8 - ½ turn at aft CG limit.
5.Slower indicated airspeed upon recovery.
6.Less loss of altitude per rotation.
The 1-34 is fully aerobatic, but due to the danger of easily exceeding the maximum placard speed from a poorly executed maneuver, it is highly recommended that pilots without aerobatic experience either not attempt aerobatics, or get instruction prior to engaging in such flight.
Dive brakes can be used for rapid loss of altitude at any time, including the normal landing procedure as described below.
The 1-34’s dive brakes are extremely effective and will limit the aircraft’s speed to approximately 142 mph in a vertical-attitude dive at full gross weight. This is an a hold over error from the first version of this manual. At the new gross weight the Vne is 132. To maintain a given IAS the nose must be lowered as the dive brakes are pulled open. The reverse is true when closing them.
SLIPPING THE AIRCRAFT
Slips can be executed normally, but with the effectiveness of the dive brakes it is unlikely that slipping should become necessary.
A. Normal Landing:
Pattern It is standard practice to fly a normal traffic pattern. Allow extra airspeed as necessary depending on gust and wind conditions.
Approach The approach should be made high with use of dive brakes as needed. They increase both sink and drag which, in turn, creates a steeper and more controllable glide path.
Touch Down Can be made with dive brakes fully open, partially open, or fully closed. However, the latter is not recommended except for practice or the stretch out a lancing approach. The actual landing should be make at an IAS of 40 - 45 mph. Do not touch down less than 45 mph. Landing at a slower speed will result in a tail first landing.
On the 1-34R the main wheel is located in a more forward position. For that reason forward pressure is used during the landing roll and stick movement increased as airspeed decreases, until elevator control becomes lost and the tail wheel contacts the ground.
Ground Run After touch-down, the aircraft should be literally flown to a stop. Care should be taken to keep the wings level and the track straight. When taxiing in a cross wind, keep the upwind wing low for best possible control.
Wheel Brake May be used at any time, and to any extent, for as quick a stop as desired after touch down. The aircraft can be landed with the wheel brake fully on. This will not cause the sailplane to nose over, although an abrupt rotation will occur until the nose skid makes contact with the ground.
B. Landing, Dive-Brakes Inoperative - Emergency Procedure:
In the event that the dive brakes should become inoperative, in which case the wheel brake would probably be also inoperative, the correct landing procedure is:
1. Enter pattern at lower than normal altitude.
2. Fly pattern at a slow but safe speed (45 -50 mph).
3. Slip as necessary at an indicated 45 - 50 mph until sailplane is ½ wing span from the ground.
4. Raise low wing as altitude decreases, but hold in full opposite rudder.
5. At 2 to 3 feet above ground, wings should be level and opposite rudder eased off to neutral position (straight and level flight).
6. From 2 to 3 feet force the sailplane gently but firmly to a flying touch-down.
7. Upon touch-down, Immediately but slowly, push the stick full forward so that the skid will contact the ground and assist in braking to a stop.
It is rather difficult to land a high performance sailplane using the above procedure. Therefore, some practice landings of this type would be very beneficial for a future emergency. However, since an inoperative dive brake is considered to be a remote possibility, a pilot should not attempt to practice this emergency procedure until he has become thoroughly familiar with the normal flight and handling characteristics of the sailplane.
COLD WEATHER OPERATION OF THE 1-34
Since the 1-34 may be used in wave and winter flying, it is recommended that a low-temperature lubricant be used on all pivot points, bearing surfaces, and other moving parts. To do this, the pins and bolts should be removed and cleaned of any old grease or ail with a solvent. Apply low-temperature grease, such as Esso “Beacon #325”, or equivalent, which meets low-temperature requirements of Spec. MIL-G-3278 (See QPL-3278)
DIVE BRAKE FREEZING:
Two types of freezing are possible with the dive brake system. The first is the actual freezing down of the dive brake doors and the second is the high friction of the dive brake control system due to the low temperature effect on lubricants.
Snow or ice on the top surface of the wing will usually be melted by the sun which results in a water film in the dive brake door recesses. In flight, as the air cools with altitude, this water freezes the doors into the recesses so that they may not be opened. It is recommended that the doors and recesses be checked and dried off if flying in freezing weather is expected or intended.
The dive brake system should be cleaned and re-lubricated with low-temperature grease as previously stated.
ICE, FROST OR SNOW ON SAILPLANE:
Ice, frost or snow on a sailplane can be dangerous in that is greatly increases stalling speed. All ice, frost and snow should be removed from the sailplane prior to flight. This can most easily be done by cleaning off the excess and then letting the sun melt the rest. If heated hangars or blowers are available, they can be used. Be sure surfaces are dry before attempting flight. Do not scrape ice, snow or frost from surfaces as this is likely to scratch the finish, or possibly gouge the skin.
Be sure that the bolts and nuts holding the plexiglass to the canopy frame are only snug so that plastic can move as it expands or contracts. It is recommended that clear-view panels be installed inside the canopy to provide a dead air space. Use of the ventilating window may not be practical at extremely low temperatures.
When operating through slush or mud, it is possible that the wheel well may become filled during one or several take-offs and landings. Then during flight, if temperature droops sufficiently, slush may freeze and lock the wheel. There is no remedy for this except to avoid the slush and mud. The consequence for landing with a wheel locked is not severe - at most, a blown tire could result.
On the SGS 1-34R, the above conditions hold true, but with the additional possibility of the retraction mechanisms and doors becoming frozen in the “gear up” position. While this is undesirable, a nearly normal landing can be made on the nose skid without necessarily damaging the sailplane. Allowances should be made to compensate for the absence of the wheel-brake in such an instance.
1-34 and 134R FLIGHT ENVELOPE
The graph on the following page (Fig. III) shows the basic Flight Envelope. The aircraft should be operated within the envelope limits at all times. Note the different maximum speeds allowable with or without use of the dive brakes. From points A to C and A to J abrupt maneuvers will not exceed the load factor indicated by this line. Above C (83mph) the maneuver must be limited to avoid excessive load factors. The gust lines are based on the standard 24 ft/sec. Gust. In case of extreme turbulence, such as found in wave conditions and clouds, gusts can be much higher and the aircraft should be operated as slowly as practicable, considering the fact that under turbulent conditions a safe margin above stalling speed should be maintained.
Keep in mind that while the load factors in the Flight Envelope carry a 50% margin of safety, these margins should not be used intentionally - they are for inadvertent conditions only. This is also generally true for over-speeding. A 20% increase in speed above the placard limit will use up the margin of safety. A wise pilot will never use greater speed, or pull more G’s that the condition requires.
A word of caution on aerobatics. Sailplane aerobatics is a specialized field and requires instruction and experience to accomplish safely. As previously stated in this manual, it is all too easy to exceed flight limits in a improperly executed maneuver, and for that reason aerobatic flight is not recommended.
To aid the serious pilot in becoming familiar with the various L/D vs. Airspeed relationships, a graph of the calculated performance curves, at maximum gross weight, is provided for his information. See Figure IV.
Fig. III n7595.freeservers.com/flightenvelope.jpg
Fig. IV n7595.freeservers.com/performancecurves.jpg
Design Data n7595.freeservers.com/one34manualperformanceweb.jpg
Annual Check List and Lube Chart